I shall declare Thou art light. Thou art the true and the good. May He preserve the teacher! Me, may He protect! My teacher, may He protect! May He protect us both together, may He nourish us both together, may we work conjointly with great energy, may our study be vigorous and effective, may we not mutually dispute or may we not hate any!
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Maitri Upanishad deals with the concept and nature of Atman Soul, Self , the question of "how is joy possible? Meditation of soul is the essence of religious activity - First Prapathaka[ edit ] The text begins with the following prelude,  The performance of all the sacrifices, described in the Maitrayana-Brahmana, is to lead up in the end to a knowledge of Brahman, to prepare a man for meditation.
Therefore, let such man, after he has laid those fires,  meditate on the Self, to become complete and perfect. But who is to be meditated on?
The king admits, "I lack the knowledge of Soul, you know the essence of Soul", so please teach me. The king insists, by asking a series of metaphysical questions to the sage. In this body infected with passions, anger, greed, delusion, fright, despondency, grudge, separation from what is dear and desirable, attachment to what is not desirable, hunger, thirst, old age, death, illness, sorrow and the rest - how can one experience only joy?
There are other great ones. And what of these? The drying up of great oceans, the crumbling down of the mountains, the instability of the pole-star, the tearing of the wind-chords, the sinking down, the submergence of the earth, the tumbling down of the gods from their place - in a world in which such things occur, how can one experience only joy! It is likely, states Deussen, that these two philosophies influenced the formulation of these questions in the form presented in Maitri Upanishad.
I shall tell it to thee. The dialogue states that "man was created in the image of its creator, innately has all its powers, and is driven by it". The dialogue raises a series of metaphysical objections and inconsistencies with this premise, and then offers theories to resolve the what, how and why this is so.
Vyana holds the Prana and Apana in balance, giving strength to the whole body. Samana is that which carries gross food to Apana and then subtler food throughout the body. Udana is that which delivers food up and down the body from what has been eaten or drunk. Now the Upamsu-vessel or prana depends on the Antaryama-vessel apana and the Antaryama-vessel apana on the Upamsu-vessel prana , and between these two the self-resplendent Self produced heat.
This heat is the purusha person , and this purusha is Agni Vaisvanara. The Purusha resides within, assumes the nature of Buddhi intellect, power to reason. However, having divided itself fivefold, its purpose unattained, it impulsively feels, "let me enjoy objects". The Upanishad, thereafter recites the "parable of chariot" found in older Upanishads. Max Muller summarizes it as, "the perceptive organs are his reins, the active organs his horses, the body his chariot, the mind the charioteer, the whip being the temperament emotions.
Driven by that whip, his body goes round and round like a wheel driven by the potter. This body is made intelligent, and he Atman is the driver thereof. This Soul of his is pure, unchanging, unmoving, undefilable, serenely calm constant, the spectator within him, the self-abiding. Man, because of this confusion, binds himself with suffering, just like a bird binds itself inside a net. Now as even a ball of iron, pervaded by fire, hammered by smiths, becomes manifold forms, thus the elemental Self, pervaded by inner man, hammered by guna qualities, personality , becomes manifold.
And as when the ball of iron is hammered, the fire is not overcome unaffected , so the inner man is not overcome, only elemental Self is overcome. It calls asceticism qua asceticism wrong, and then immediately calls asceticism right, necessary and praises asceticism for the inner perfection and Self-knowledge it helps bring. In paragraph 4. It is this union of Brahman that frees the true Self unto bliss. The text answers that they are merely forms of Brahman, that one should meditate upon, worship, yet ultimately deny them and reject the gods.
This is expounded on, as follows, Agni fire , Vayu wind and Aditya sun , Kala time , Prana breath , and Food, Brahma, Rudra and Vishnu - some meditate upon one, some upon another, tell us which one is the best?
To whichever deity each man is attached, in its world he rejoices. Yet, it is said, this whole world is Brahman. He thus unites with the universal, and attains union with the Soul.
The hymn calls the Soul as Prabhu Lord of all pleasure and delight. The text states that in the beginning the universe was darkness Tamas alone. The Brahman impelled Tamas to differentiate, thus arose passion action qua action, Rajas. The Brahman impelled Rajas to continue differentiating, and thus arose purity right action, truth, Sattva. These three Gunas reside in everything. The aspect of Brahman that characterizes Tamas is Rudra. The aspect of Brahman that characterizes Rajas is Brahma.
The aspect of Brahman that characterizes Sattva is Vishnu. The outer Self is the evidence of the inner Self, and the inner Self is the evidence of the outer Self. The outer soul and inner soul are, assuredly, states the Upanishad, one and same thing.
Om represents Brahman-Atman. The immortal formless is truth, the truth is the Brahman, the Brahman is the light, the light is the Sun which is the syllable Om as the Self. It is the Soul of man that comes to know subjective and objective knowledge. Man should find this Self within him. Everything is food to everything else, and taking of food is described by the Upanishad as a form of worship, a sacrifice offered by the Self to the Self. Because without proof, the assumption which is to be proved, is not admissible; But, that which is itself to be proved or demonstrated, when one comprehends it in its parts, becomes the ground of proof, through which it brings itself into consciousness in the inductive way.
It defines non-Time as "what was there before the appearance of Sun", and Time as "what began with the appearance of Sun". Year is the Murti idol of time. The Brahman is the eternal, the boundless, the unborn, the immeasurable, the infinite, that which existed before Time, the light in the Sun, the colors in the smokeless fire, and all are only that one, one alone. The supplementary section starts with the theory of Yoga , as the way by which the highest human goal of Self-knowledge can be attained.
The identified Yoga steps for Self-knowledge in Maitrayaniya Upanishad are: Pranayama regulation of breath , Pratyahara withdrawal of senses inwards , Dhyana meditation , Dharana concentration of mind on one idea , Tarka creative, contemplation of idea , Samadhi absorption with the idea, a state of being one with the idea.
After enumerating the sixfold yoga, the Upanishad states that the path to Self-knowledge is yogic meditating on Self and Brahman. The one who thus knows Atman, asserts the text, becomes innately one of goodness, liberated, limitless, blissful. Maitri Upanishad 6. You ask: Which of them is Atman? Answer: He who has been described as pure, clean, void, quite The one whose mind is controlled by objects of sense is unfree, the one whose mind is guided by his soul is free mukti.
Maha Narayana Upanishad
Mahā Nārāyaṇa Upanishad | Full | With Commentaries
Mahanarayana Upanishad - translated with notes by Swami Vimalananda