Tojarn Iz takvih stupica, poznato je, rijetko se ko mogao izbaviti, brzo i lako izbaviti. Their next stepe was to drive some Illyrian tribes into the modern Herzegovina, western Serbia and Montenegro, and to seize their srednjovekoovne in northerneastern parts of Bosnia. The Dzemijet was banned in because of its ties with kacaks and the government in Tirana, but in continued to operate clandestinely. U me uvremenu su primali nove radnike. U nekim stihovima ove strukture imaju funkciju nadimka. Prva fabrikahartije izgra ena je u Bagdadu It is important to note that the Kosaa family was educated in the spirit of the Nemanji family, which was a kind of canon 4 See Svetlana Tomin, and others.
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Dusan T. Batakovic June - In the thousand year long-history of Serbs, Kosovo and Metohia were for many centuries the state center and chief religious stronghold, the heartland of their culture and springwell of its historical traditions. For a people who lived longer under foreign rule than in their own state, Kosovo and Metohia are the foundations on which national and state identity were preserved in times of tribulation and founded in times of freedom.
Vitus Day Battle in Kosovo polje occupies the central place , are the pillars of that grand edifice that constitutes the Serbian national pantheon. It is no wonder, then, that the many turning-points in Serbian history took place in the and around Kosovo and Metohia. When the Serbs on other Balkan lands fought to preserve their religious freedoms and national rights, their banners bore as their beacon the Kosovo idea embodied in the Kosovo covenant which was woven into folk legend and upheld in uprisings against alien domination.
The Kosovo covenant - the choice of freedom in the celestial empire instead of humiliation and slavery in the temporal world - although irrational as a collective consciousness, is still the one permanent connective tissue that imbues the Serbs with the feeling of national entity and lends meaning to its join efforts. Slijepcevic, Srpsko-arbanaski odnosi kroz vekove posebnim osvrtom na novije vreme, Himelstir ; D.
Proslost i sadasnjost, Beograd English translation: Kosovo. Past and present, Belgrade The Age of Communism - Communist Dictatorship - The Age of Ascent Kosovo and Metohia, land lying in the heart of the Balkans where viutal trade routes had crossed since ancient times, was settled by Slav tribes between the 7th and 10th centuries.
The Serbian medieval state, which under the Nemanjic dynasty 12th to 14th century grew into a major power in the Balkan peninsula, developed in the nearby mountain regions, in Raska with Bosnia and in Duklja later Zeta and then Montenegro.
The center of the Nemanjic slate moved to Kosovo and Metohia after the fall of Constantinople At its peak, in the early the 14th century, these lands were the richest and the most densely populated areas, as well as state and its cultural and administrative centers.
The entire Kosovo and Metohia region became a permanent part of the Serbian state by the beginning of the 13th century. Soon after becoming autocephalous , the Serbian Orthodox Church moved its seat to Metohia. The heirs of the first archbishop Saint Sava prince Rastko Nemanjic built several additional temples around the Church of the Holy Apostles, lying the ground for what was to become the Patriarchate of Pec.
With the proclamation of the empire, the patriarchal throne was permanently established at the Pec monastery in Studded with more churches and monasteries than any other Serbian land, Kosovo and Metohia became the spiritual nucleus of Serbs.
Lying at the crossroads of the main Balkan routes connecting the surrounding Serbian lands of Raska, Bosnia, Zeta and the Scutari littoral with the Macedonia and the Morava region, Kosovo and Metohia were, geographically speaking, the ideal place for a state and cultural center. Girfled by mountain gorges and comparatively safe from outside attacks, Kosovo and Metohia were not chosen by chance as the site for building religious centers, church mausoleums and palaces.
The rich holdings of Decant monastery provided and economic underpinning for the wealth of spiritual activities in the area. Learned monks and religious dignitaries assembled in large monastic communities which were well provided for by the rich feudal holdings , strongly influenced the spiritual shaping of the nation, especially in strengthening local cults and fostering the Orthodox doctrine.
In the monasteries of Metohia and Kosovo, old theological and literary writings were transcribed and new ones penned, including the lives of local saints, from ordinary monks and priors to the archbishops and rulers of the house of Nemanjic. The libraries and scriptoria were stocked with the best liturgical and theoretical writings from all over Byzantine commonwealth, especially with various codes from the monasteries of Mounth Athos with which close ties were established.
The architecture of the churches and monasteries developed and the artistic value of their frescoes increased as Serbian medieval culture flourished, and by the end of the 13th century new ideas applied in architecture and in the technique of fresco painting surpassed the traditional Byzantine models.
With time, especially in centuries to come, the people came to believe that Kosovo was the center of Serbian Orthodoxy and the most resistant stronghold of the Serbian nation.
From King Milutin to emperor Uros, court life evolved in the royal residences in southern Kosovo and Prizren. There rulers summoned the landed gentry, received foreign legates and issued charters.
The court of Svrcin stood on the banks of Lake Sazlia, and it was there that Stefan Dusan was crowned king in On the opposite side was the palace in Pauni, where King Milutin often dwelled. The court in Nerodimlje was the favourite residence of King Stefan Decanski, and it was at the palace in Stimlje that emperor Uros issued his charters. King Milutin left behind the largest number of endowments in Kosovo, one of the finest of which is Gracanica monastery near Pristina, certainly the most beautiful medieval monument in the Balkans.
The monasteries of Banjska dear Zvecan early 14th century and Our Lady of Ljeviska in Prizren , although devastated during Ottoman rule, are eloquent examples of the wealth and power of the Serbian state at the start of the 14th century. Also of artistic importance is the complex of churches in Juxtaposition to the Patriarchate of Pec.
Fertile plains were largely owned by the large monasteries, from Chilandar in Mount Athos to Decant in Metohia. The data given in the charters show that during the period of the political rise of Serbian state, the population gradually moved from the mountain plateau in the west and north southward to the fertile valleys of Metohia and Kosovo. The census of monastic estates evince both a rise in the population and appreciable economic progress. The estates of the Banjska monastery numbered 83 villages, and those of the Holy Archangels numbered The Decant estate was an extensive area which encompassed parts of what is today northwestern Albania.
Historical analysis and onomastic research reveal that only three of the 89 settlements were mentioned as being Albanian. More recent research indicates that apart from the Slav, i. Northern Albania up to the Mati River was a part of the Serbian Kingdom, but it was not until the conquest of Tsar Dusan that the entire Albania with the exception of Durazzo entered the Serbian Empire. Fourteenth century records mention mobile Albanian mobile cattle sheds on mountain slopes in the imminent vicinity of Metohia, and sources in the first half of the 15th century note their presence albeit in smaller number in the flatland farming settlements.
After his death it began to disintegrate into areas controlled by powerful regional lords. The earliest clashes with the Turks, who edged their way into Europe at the start of the 14th century, were noted during the reign of Stefan Dusan. The battle of the Marica, near Crnomen in which Turkish troops rode rougshod over the huge army of the Mrnjavcevic brothers, the feudal lords of Macedonia, Kosovo and neighboring regions, heralded the decisive Turkish invasion of Serbian lands.
The Turkish onslaught is remembered as the apocalypse of the Serbian people, and this tradition was cherished during the long period of Ottoman rule. During the Battle of the Marica, a monk wrote that "the worst of all times" had come, when "the living envied the dead".
On the eve of the battle of Kosovo, the northern parts of Kosovo where in possession of Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic, and parts of Metohia belonged to his brother-in-law Vuk Brankovic. By quelling the resistance of the local landed gentry, Prince Lazar eventually emerged as the most powerful regional lord and came to dominate the lands of Moravian Serbia. Sava grave in monastery Mileseva. Vitus day, June 15 28 , Both Prince Lazar and emir Murad were killed in the head-on collision between the two armies approximately 30, troops on both sides.
Contemporaries were especially impressed by the tidings that twelve Serbian knights most probably led by legendary hero Milos Obilic broke through the tight Turkish ranks and killed the emir in his tent. Vuk Brankovic, unjustly remembered in epic tradition as a traitor who slipped away from the battle field, resisted them until , when he was forced to become their vassal. After the battle of Angora in , Prince Stefan took advantage of the chaos in the Ottoman state.
Despite frequent internal conflicts and his vassal obligations to the Turks and Hungarians, despot Stefan revived and economically consolidated the Serbian state, the center of which was gradually moving northward.
This was the last concertive attempt in the Middle Ages to rout the Turks out of this part of Europe. For some time voivode Nikola Skobaljic offered valiant resistance in Kosovo, but after a series of consecutive campaigns and lengthy sieges in , the economic center of Serbia, Novo Brdo fell.
The Turks then proceeded to conquer other towns in Kosovo and Metohia four years before the entire Serbian Despotate collapsed with the fall of new capital Smederevo. Turkish onslaught, marked by frequent military raids, the plunder and devastation of entire regions, the destruction of monasteries and churches, gradually narrowed down Serbian state territories, triggering off a large-scale migration northwards, to regions beyond reach to the conquerors.
The biggest migration took place from , when a large part of the population of northern Serbia moved to Hungary and Transylvania, to bordering region along the Sava and Danube rivers, where the descendants of the fleeing despots of Smederevo resisted the Turks for several decades to come. Cirkovic, Kosovo i Metohija u srednjem veku, in: Kosovo i Metohija u srpskoj istoriji, pp.
Samardzic, Kosovo i Metohija: uspon i propadanje srpskog naroda, in: Kosovo i Metohija u srpskoj istoriji, pp. XLII, Belgrade , pp. For more details see: Istorija srpskog naroda, vol. I Belgrade Cirkovic, Vladarski dvorci oko jezera na Kosovu, in: Zbornik Matice srpske za likovne umetnosti, 20 , pp. Jovanovic, Arheoloska istrazivanja srednjovekovnih spomenika i nalazista na Kosovu, in: Zbomik okruglog stola o naucnom istrazivanju Kosova, pp.
Bogdanovic, Knjiga o Kosovu, pp. Cirkovic, Kosovo i Metohija u srednjem veku, pp. More details in: B. More details in: R. Cirkovic, Istorija srednjovekovne bosanske drzave, Beograd , pp.
Purkovic, Knez i despot Stefan Lazarevic, Beograd More details: R. Mihaljcic, Lazar Hrebeljanovic. II Beograd , pp. Bogdanovic, op. With the advent of the Turks and establishment of their rule, the lands of Serbs were forcibly excluded from the circle of progressive European states wherein they occupied a prominent place precisely owing to the Byzantine civilisation, which was enhanced by local qualities and strong influences of the neighboring Mediterranean states.
Being Christians, the Serbs became second-class citizens in Islamic state. Apart from religious discrimination, which was evident in all spheres of everyday life, this status of rayah also implied social dependence, as most of the Serbs were landless peasants who paid the prescribed feudal taxes.
Of the many dues paid in money, labor and kind, the hardest for the Serbs was having their children taken as tribute under a law that had the healthy boys, taken from their parents, converted to Islam and trained to serve in the janissary corps of the Turkish army. An analyse of the earliest Turkish censuses, defters, shows that the ethnic picture of Kosovo and Metohia did not alter much during the 14th and 15th centuries.
The small-in-number Turkish population consisted largely of people from the administration and military that were essential in maintaining order, whereas Christians continued to predominate in the rural areas. Kosovo and parts of Metohia were registrated in under the name Vilayeti Vlk, after Vuk Brankovic who once ruled over them.
Some 75, inhabitants lived in registrated villages. An onomastic analysis of approximately 8, personal names shows that Slav and Christian names were heavily predominant.
Ethnic designations ethnic Albanian, Bulgarian, Armenian, Greek appeared repeatedly next to the names of settlers in the region. More thorough onomastic research has shown that from the midth to the 15th centuries, individual Albanian settlements appeared on the fringes of Metohia, in-between what had until then been a density of Serbian villages.
This was probably due to the devastation wrought by Turks who destroyed the old landed estates, thus allowing for the mobile among the population, including ethnic Albanian cattlemen, to settle on the abandoned land and establish their settlements, which were neither big nor heavily populated. Christian households predominated totalling 16,, out of which were in Pristina and Vucitrn : there were Muslim households 94 in Pristina and 83 in rural areas. A comprehensive census of the Scutari district offers the following picture: in Pec Ipek there were 33 Muslim and Christian households, while in Suho Grlo, also in Metohia, Christians alone lived in households.
An analysis of the names shows that those of Slav origin predominated among the Christians. Ethnic Albanian settlements where people had characteristic names did not appear until one reached areas outside the borders of what is today Metohia, i. Among the Christians was a smattering of Catholics. In the first decade following Turkish conquest, many large endowments and wealthier churches were pillaged and destroyed, while some turned into mosques.
Kosovo and Metohija - A Historical Survey(1), Prof. Dr. Dusan T. Batakovic