However, according to the people of knowledge, there is a distinction between saying that this is kufr and between takfir of a specific individual. Thus not everyone who does a thing which is major kufr gets the ruling of kufr applied upon him. The saying or action may be kufr, but kufr is not generally applied upon every speaker or doer [of kufr] except with conditions. Because, it is necessary in regards to takfir to make certain the condition are present and that the barriers are uplifted. A person may be new into Islam and not be aware that he did something that was kufr; so it is clarified for him.
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Peace and blessings be upon His Messenger. A careful answer to the question must look at what Kufr means, both in respect to oneself and others, before drawing general conclusions on what legally establishes or acquits a person of the charge of unbelief. Oneself Life is a gamble, whose stakes are paradise or hell. This is our test, and the judge is a King, who is not up for reelection. If our ignorance of how He shall judge us in the next world is far greater than our knowledge, we do have enough to go on, and the immense value in His eyes of our lives and actions is certainly plain from the magnitude of the stakes.
Those who knew more than anyone about it was more afraid than anyone; namely, the prophets. And the only ones not afraid are those who do not understand. It is not. Matters that not everyone knows; 3. Things That Everyone Knows To deny anything of the first category above constitutes plain and open unbelief. Muslims in such a condition should be informed about the truth, and if they then continue as before, they are adjudged non-Muslims, as is also the case with any Muslim who believes it permissible to commit adultery, drink wine, kill without right, or do other acts that are necessarily known to be unlawful [Sharh Sahih Muslim, 1.
In matters of belief, the line traditionally drawn between this type of knowledge and the preceding is their accessibility. As for what is beyond that, he is only responsible to believe what he has learned of.
Now, the point of asking scholars is to accept their answer, and few things are more incompatible with divine justice than that the consequence of doing so should be perpetual damnation, as it would if one side of an issue were unbelief. Unfortunately, there are some Muslims today who seem to believe this, the reply to which we shall see in our discussion of sects below. The Enormity of Charging a Muslim with Unbelief Judging anyone who regards himself a Muslim to be an unbeliever is a matter not taken lightly by anyone who understands its consequences.
Then why would anyone do so? The motives today behind careless accusations of unbelief made by Muslims are many, of which few have anything to do with religion. All the rest are simply bad, whether found individually, or when confused with the first. The True Measure of Unbelief It is axiomatic in Sacred Law that a state whose existence one is certain about does not cease through a state whose existence one is uncertain about.
So in matters of faith, a Muslim is always presumed to be a Muslim until there is publicly observable and decisive proof that he has ceased to be one. It there is any excuse, let the defendant off, for it is better for the ruler to make a mistake in an amnesty than to make a mistake in a punishment [Tirmidzi, 4. Given these conclusions, and the obligatory character of averting harm from Muslims, the final part of our answer shall focus upon two broad categories among the least known today of extenuating circumstances that acquit Muslims of kufr, the first relating to the criteria for such judgements, and the second relating to the accused himself.
No one can thereafter be considered a kafir without an equal certainty, since the Prophet condemned Usama for doing so. These legal criteria, with the foregoing parts of this essay, reveal a number of fallacies in the reckless charges of unbelief bandied about in our times, providing even stronger reason for Muslims to avoid them and the groups enamored with them.
Let us now look more closely at three examples of fallacies of takfir all too common in the present day: 1 the fallacy of hearsay evidence, 2 the fallacy of imputed intentionality, and 3 the fallacy of guilt by association. Those familiar with testimony in court know how frequently even well-intentioned eyewitnesses contradict each other and, upon cross-examination, themselves. In the world in which we live, not everyone is well-intentioned, especially towards those who are envied for their accomplishments or possessions.
Love and hate still sell news. Daily printing deadlines by their very nature often prevent a thorough checking of facts. When we hear something, or read it from a single source, we tend to accept such knowledge because it usually works. It does not work for judging a Muslim. Though the ruling cited is from the Hanafi school, the other schools of jurisprudence similarly stipulate testimony from witnesses.
Moreover, if the individual then denies that he has made such a statement, he is legally considered as having repented of it [Mukhtasar al-Tahawi, ]. As previously noted, such judgements are only given by the qadi in view of this-worldly rulings and consequences, which are immaterial to those now remanded by death to a higher court.
This is legally quite a different thing from judging the author himself. Aside from honest mistakes, there are intentional forgeries. They are judging words and positions, not the people who may or may not have said or held them. We have not mentioned the comparatively recent phenomenon of printed books whose contents are established by copyrights as the work of a particular author in archives such as the Library of Congress or the British Library.
For such works, the thoroughness of documentation suggests that authors bear full legal responsibility for what is in them. The Fallacy of Imputed Intentionality Words are judged by what the speaker intends, not necessarily what the hearer apprehends.
If an utterance is unambiguous and its context plain, there is normally only one possible intention. But according to the Hanafi school, if a statement may conceivably be intended in either of two ways, one valid, the other unbelief kufr , it cannot be the basis for a fatwa of the kufr of the person who said it.
In the words of Imam Haskafi in his al-Durr al-mukhtar, A fatwa may not be given of the unbelief of a Muslim whose words are interpretable as having a valid meaning, or about the unbelief of which there is a difference of scholarly opinion, even if weak [Radd al-muhtar, 3. That is the great humiliation [Surah al-Tawbah —63]. For a person might do or say something which offends another that he did not have the slightest intention to offend him by, but rather intended something else, not thinking that it might give offense to the other, or understanding it would necessarily do so.
These were the greatest of the Companions, who did not mean to give offense adha by doing this, so it did not entail its legal consequences [al-Sayf al-maslul c00 , ]. He gives to Quraysh and neglects us, while our swords still drip with their blood. He gives to Quraysh and neglects the Helpers, while our swords still drip with their blood.
He merely told them why he did what he did, and of the eternal reward they would receive. There are many similar examples of unintended offense in the sunnah. One of the most telling of them is in the hadith of Muslim:.
The Difference between Kufr and Takfir
Vigar First, the fiqh differences between them, mostly about the acceptability or unacceptability of certain practices of folk Islam in the Indian subcontinent, do not concern matters of belief to begin with. Allah moreover has made the key to paradise a simple matter, to acknowledge that there is no god but God, and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger, which entails accepting everything conveyed to us by Allah as He intended it, and everything conveyed to us by the Prophet Allah bless him and give him peace as he intended it. I prefer from these sayings that it refers to the one who says it to someone from whom nothing is known except Islam and there is no justification or reason for him to claim that he is a kafir. Dear reader, is it permissible to commit kufrr a crime of misrepresentation while claiming this was done out of love of the Holy Prophet peace and blessings upon Him?
IMAN KUFR AND TAKFIR PDF
Kigakazahn Deobandis should be rest assured that the Akabir were on the true path and were not mistaken in anyway. By Allah, what you are getting is better than what they are. We live in a global village, kufd Ulamah are only a telephone call away. You must log in or sign up to reply here. No, create an account now. Iman, Kufr and Takfir For such works, the thoroughness of documentation suggests that authors bear full legal responsibility for what is in them. Conclusions Imputed intentionality is a fallacy because the rigorously authenticated proofs we have seen are too clear to misunderstand that sometimes offense may be given to Allah or His messenger Allah bless him and give him peace that was not originally intended as an offense— and is therefore without the legal consequences it would have had if it had been intentional.
Voodoozilkree In any previous Islamic community, whether in Hyderabad, Kabul, Baghdad, Cairo, Fez, or Damascus— in short, practically anywhere besides the British India of his kkfr Muslims would have found his words repugnant and unacceptable. This last, admittedly jealous, remark was a reproach against her husband, the Messenger of Allah Allah bless him and give him peacebut here too, because it was a mere emotional protest that lacked the explicit intention to demean or offend him, it entailed no legal consequences. In any previous Islamic community, whether in Hyderabad, Kabul, Baghdad, Cairo, Fez, or Damascus—in short, practically anywhere besides the British India of his day—Muslims would have found his words repugnant and unacceptable. If we think about it, imaan of our everyday knowledge is acquired with considerably less than the verification demanded by Islam. Traffic Feedjit Live Blog Stats.