This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Campomanesia xanthocarpa is known in Brazil as Guabiroba and is popularly used for various diseases, such as inflammatory, renal, and digestive diseases and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the effects of aqueous extract of C. The extract was evaluated for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content.
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Campomanesia xanthocarpa is known in Brazil as Guabiroba and is popularly used for various diseases, such as inflammatory, renal, and digestive diseases and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the effects of aqueous extract of C.
The extract was evaluated for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content. The chemical components were determined by HPLC analyses. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured with extract and drugs administration.
The leaves of C. The acute administration of aqueous extract of C. Docking studies showed models that indicated an interaction between chlorogenic acid and quercetin with the AT1 receptor AT1R active site.
The findings of these docking studies suggest the potential of C. Introduction Essential hypertension is a highly prevalent pathological condition that is considered one of the most relevant cardiovascular risk factors and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Major effects on renal and cardiovascular physiology attributed to angiotensin II are mediated through the AT1R [ 1 ]. Chronic activation of the AT1R can lead to disease states, including hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, stroke, diabetic nephropathy, and metabolic disorders [ 2 — 4 ].
The AT1a receptor is well expressed in most cardiovascular tissues and is the principal regulator of blood pressure [ 5 ], which is effectively treated using AT1R blockers [ 4 , 6 , 7 ]. Many synthetic drugs have been widely used for the treatment of hypertension, but herbal medicines still remain a popular choice.
The abundant use of these medicinal plants has led to extensive research in this area to determine their potential efficacy, and modern cardiovascular drugs are now available as natural products [ 8 ]. The leaves of this plant are used as an infusion in folk medicine to treat inflammatory, urinary, and rheumatic diseases, and hypercholesterolemia [ 9 ]. Moreover, it is empirically used for weight loss and for the control of many conditions associated with obesity [ 10 ].
Scientific studies demonstrate that C. Natural biological active compounds in plants have a significant role in vegetable defense mechanism and are also important for their unambiguous physiological actions in human body. Due to their therapeutic properties, secondary metabolites flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and terpenoids are becoming a part of the integrative health care system as supportive and alternative medicines [ 18 ].
Thus, knowing the chemical composition of these medicinal plants is very important. Phytochemical analysis from the leaves of C. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the chemical composition of C. Material and Methods 2. For biological analysis, the infusions were oven-dried, reduced to powder, and rediluted in 0. Characterization of Plants and Extracts 2. Total Phenolic Content The Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method with some modifications was used to determine the total phenolic content [ 19 ].
Total Flavonoid Content The method described by Chang et al. The chromatographic parameters were adapted from Yang et al. To identify and suggest the presence of components in the leaf extract of C. Extract samples and references standards were analyzed in triplicate. After all of the protocols, the animals were sacrificed using the guillotine while still under the effects of the anesthesia. The arterial catheter was connected to a pressure transducer coupled to an analog digital converter Biopac Systems MP, Inc.
Extract Curve For evaluation of the extract effects on hemodynamic parameters, a rising curve was done, after 30 minutes of stabilization. Drugs All drugs and reagents used were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co.
Louis, MO, United States. Molecular Modeling Studies Computational studies were performed with chlorogenic acid and quercetin, components determined in aqueous extract, to obtain information which aided in the understanding of the biological activity. The lowest energy conformer for chemical structure was saved in a mol2 file before use in the docking studies. Using iGemdock software [ 26 ], docking studies were performed in which the individual binding site of chlorogenic acid and quercetin were assessed and submitted to docking in the active site of the AT1R.
Docking calculations were performed at drug screening docking accuracy setting with GA parameters set for population size, generation, and number of solutions as , 70, and 3, respectively, with a Gemdock score function of hydrophobic and electrostatic 1 : 1 preference.
Results 3. Characterization of Plant and Extracts The value of the total phenolic compounds found in the analysis of C. In Figure 1 , it is possible to observe the complexity of plant matrix, whose constituents are being detected along the chromatographic run; in this case, the detection at nm was focused in phenolic compounds. Compared to the reference standards, the similarity between retention times, besides UV spectra for chromatographic peaks, is indicative for the presence of gallic acid compound 1 , chlorogenic acid compound 2 , and quercetin compound 3.
In another assay Figure 2 , aiming to evaluate the xanthine derivatives and caffeic acid by performing the detection at nm, we suggest the presence of theobromine compound 8 in the medicinal plant studied.
It is important to mention that the peaks were evaluated using UV-DAD detection, whose UV profile data were thoroughly studied in order to confirm the chemical composition suggested Figure 3.
Effect of C. Discussion and Conclusions Platelets are blood cells that participate in the human primary hemostatic mechanism. Platelet-platelet interaction has the final purpose to produce a platelet thrombus that constitutes the primary hemostatic plug [ 24 ]. In addition, platelet adhesion and aggregation on blood vessel walls contribute to the occurrence of thrombosis and emboli formation, and have relation with other cardiovascular diseases [ 25 — 27 ]. Thus, it is important to evaluate platelet function in the thrombosis. Several studies have been carried out to develop antithrombotic agents with improved efficacy for preventing or treating arterial or venous thrombosis [ 28 , 29 ].
Anti-inflammatory Evaluation and Toxicological Analysis of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg.
Gabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa)