Based on this, scholarly opinion had formerly attributed the grammar to a separate author of the same name from the 7th century CE. The leading Sanskrit scholar Ingalls submitted that "I see no reason why he should not have written poems as well as grammar and metaphysics", like Dharmakirti , Shankaracharya , and many others. This distinction may be thought to be similar to that of the present notion of phoneme. Further, words are understood only in the context of the sentence whose meaning as a whole is known. His argument for this was based on language acquisition , e.

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His words become broken. The poet explains the compelling circumstances. When a person sees his starving and sunken faced wife clad in a torn saree being chased by his hungry children seeking food, he cannot but go for a charity support. This is a masterpiece from the poet. He clearly recognises that the wisest person is driven to a pitiable state by hunger in the family. The poet compares the belly to a large barrel.

When hungry, it breaks self respect. Just as moonlight makes lotus flowers to contract and close their petals, the stomach contracts all virtues of a person. Like an axe it severs the creeper like sense of shame of a person and makes him to stoop and kneel. This barrel is hard to fill. Begging peers and relatives. Begging in forests. Begging, wearing a white cloth, door to door in villages having houses of wise persons performing the sacred rites and maintaining the sacred fire, smoke emitting from house tops.

The poet finds the second and third choices better. Ascetics survive on them. Have the fruit-laden trees, yielding fibre for making clothes died down?

Eating fruits, roots and tubers and wearing fabrics made of tree barks and drinking the sweet water of sacred rivers, moving in the valleys, the poet prefers to begging. The poet is distressed to see the worry-grooves on the foreheads of mendicants begging wicked barons for money and exhausting themselves due to insults.

He asks her to make a bed of leaf beds. He wants her to make food of delicious fruits and roots. The poet does not want to hear even the name of those lowly rich barons 1. The poet has no desire to relinquish his beloved even in the forest. He wants her to serve him by making food and bed. About roots and fruits: In 21st Century, most of us particularly vegetarians are root eaters potatos, carrots, colacasia, beet root etc.

The mendicants were standing at the doorsteps of the stingy barons seeking money. They were thinking of ordinary sensual pleasures again and again and stooping down in the process. It does not satisfy the wants of anybody. Thus when desire and greed cannot be satisfied even by a mountain of gold, begging for money is despicable. This is the central theme of the verse. Not obtained by stooping down. Gives immense comfort. Breaks the sense of fear and assuring. Breaks the envy and pride in individuals.

Removes heaps of misery. Available always and daily. Available without much effort. Likeable to ascetics. Most eligible and befitting. Not exhausting. The poet uses a number of adjectives to emphasize the importance of alms for an ascetic. But it is not. When the ascetics live in forests they eat wild fruits and roots.

When they visit villages which are mostly adjuncts or in the middle of forests, they obtain alms door to door. In fact, in such begging also there are some rules. The mendicant cannot stand at one door step for long time.

The begging should not be for the purpose of storing. Actually, vessels or bags should not be used for collecting food. The mendicant should use his two hands joined together like a bowl and eat on the spot. In those days householders also used to treat mendicants kindly.


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