AUTOSEGMENTAL AND METRICAL PHONOLOGY GOLDSMITH PDF

Gardazil Autosegmental phonology Public Private login e. There are metriacl in which the rule applies not to a particular value of a feature, but to whatever value the feature has. University of Newcastle Library. Grammar, Comparative and general — Phonology.

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Segments are depicted through vertical listings of features connected by lines. These sets can also underspecify in order to indicate a class rather than a single segment. Environments can be shown by placing other connected sets of features around that which is the focus of the rule. Feature changes are shown by striking through the lines that connect a feature that is lost to the rest of the segment and drawing dotted lines to features that are gained.

Voiced coronal stops Main article: Distinctive features Rather than classify segments using the categories given in the International Phonetic Alphabet , the autosegmental formalism makes use of distinctive features, which provide greater granularity and make identification of natural classes easier.

An alveolar segment using dependent features Feature dependencies[ edit ] For unary features to be fully specified, it is necessary to include binary subfeatures that correspond to them. In the autosegmental formalism, this is depicted by placing the binary subfeature at a horizontal offset from the unary feature and connecting them with a line.

The next top-level feature in the segment would then be connected to the unary feature as well as opposed to the tone. Functional groupings[ edit ] There are situations in which the rule applies not to a particular value of a feature, but to whatever value the feature has. In these situations, it is necessary to include the presence of the feature, but not to specify its value.

This can be done by including a placeholder feature composed of ellipses, with an indication of the type of feature. For example, a generic place feature can be indicated [ Tiers[ edit ] The autosegmental formalism deals with several separate linear sequences; because of this, a phonological representation is depicted on several distinct tiers.

Each of these tiers shows a different language feature. Segmental tier[ edit ] The autosegmental tier also "skeletal tier" contains the features that define the segments articulated in the phonological representation.

The descriptions given in the previous section deal with the segmental tier. In the segmental tier, features are assigned to segments. Timing tier[ edit ] The timing tier contains timing units that define the lengths of segments in the phonological representation.

Stress tier[ edit ] The stress tier contains the features that show the distribution of stress in the phonological representation. Tone tier[ edit ] The tone tier contains the features that show the distribution of tones in the phonological representation. Well-Formedness Condition[ edit ] As a theory of the dynamic of phonological representations, autosegmental phonology includes a Well-formedness Condition on association lines each element on one tier that "may" be associated to an element on another tier "must" be associated to such an element, and association lines do not cross plus an instruction as to what to do in case of a violation of the Well-formedness Condition: add or delete the minimum number of association lines in order to maximally satisfy it.

Many of the most interesting predictions of the autosegmental model derive from the automatic effects of the Well-formedness Condition and their independence of language-particular rules. Place assimilation in nasals Place assimilation in nasals[ edit ] The autosegmental formalism can be especially useful in describing assimilation rules.

Using it for such rules makes the relationship between the result of the rule and the environment obvious. It also makes it possible to concisely describe rules that apply to different environments in different ways. The rule is that a coronal nasal will assimilate to the place of the following consonant. No more specification is necessary because place is the only feature of the following segment that factors into the rule.

The assimilation is shown by striking through the line to [coronal]P on the left and drawing a dotted line to the [ Bibliography[ edit ] Bloch, Bernard , A set of postulates for phonemic analysis. Language Clements, G. Vowel harmony in nonlinear generative phonology: an autosegmental model. Indiana University Linguistics Club. Firth, J. Goldsmith, John.

Autosegmental and metrical phonology. Basil Blackwell. Hayes, B. Introductory Phonology. Malden: Blackwell, ch. Hockett, Charles. A manual of phonology. Indiana University Publications in Anthropology and Linguistics McCarthy, John. A prosodic theory of non-concatenative morphology. Linguistic Inquiry 12 3 : A course in phonology. Wiley-Blackwell, pp.

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Phonological theory : the essential readings

By John A. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, As part of this task, it introduces a number of original contributions to phonological theory. The book is thus both a textbook and more: it is a text in that it provides a basic introduction to current theories of nonlinear phonology and the organization of phonology; it is more than a text in that it introduces significant original contributions to these theories. Given its two distinct goals, this book is really worthy of two separate reviews. The review might have been very different if I were considering the book primarily as a contribution to linguistic theory rather than as a textbook. I will begin with a brief overview of the contents.

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Autosegmental phonology

Segments are depicted through vertical listings of features connected by lines. These sets can also underspecify in order to indicate a class rather than a single segment. Environments can be shown by placing other connected sets of features around that which is the focus of the rule. Feature changes are shown by striking through the lines that connect a feature that is lost to the rest of the segment and drawing dotted lines to features that are gained. Voiced coronal stops Main article: Distinctive features Rather than classify segments using the categories given in the International Phonetic Alphabet , the autosegmental formalism makes use of distinctive features, which provide greater granularity and make identification of natural classes easier.

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Autosegmental And Metrical Phonology

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