INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRONIC DEFENSE SYSTEMS BY FILIPPO NERI PDF

NC www scitechpub. Eckert Sr Coinpan! B Raleigh. No part of this book may be reproduced or used in any form whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. ISBN Foreword In my government position I am responsible for military research and technology for the Italian armed forces. During my coordination work with the Western European Armament Group: Panel I1 Research and Technology , discussions have often been of a highly technical nature.

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NC www scitechpub. Eckert Sr Coinpan! B Raleigh. No part of this book may be reproduced or used in any form whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.

ISBN Foreword In my government position I am responsible for military research and technology for the Italian armed forces. During my coordination work with the Western European Armament Group: Panel I1 Research and Technology , discussions have often been of a highly technical nature. It is certainly easier to make management decisions with an adequate technical background, rather than having to grope with a poor knowledge of such technical issues.

As a result, I support any effort that has the objective of promoting an understanding of the many facets of military technology within the international community of people in charge of armament matters. In particular, the principles underlying low probability of intercept LPI threats, passive location techniques, the benefits afforded by advanced digital receivers, towed decoy jammers, new cross-eye jamming self-protection techniques, and high-power microwave weapons, have been illustrated in very simple terms.

This book illustrates the significant progress that electronic defense technology has made and is expected to achieve in the future with the advent of advanced integrated systems e. The latter will not only represent effective aids to military operations, but also act as a deterrent to any likely conflicts.

Moreover, the book describes how modern electronic defense systems operate and how they can be put to use in the military operations of today and tomorrow. As an Italian officer, I must confess to be proud of it. I hope that the insight gained from reading this book will help defense personnel to better define their requirements and prompt the defense industries towards the development of high-performance, cost-effective, and affordable systems.

Now that EW has proven to be a real deterrent and force-multiplier, I hope that armed forces around the globe will realize the benefits that new technological developments can afford and that these new assets will convince decision-makers to abstain from undertaking sad wars based on hardkill weapons and to pursue less destructive and more effective solutions in order to arrive at no-casualty operations based on high-tech electronic defense in support of political activities.

Major General Pietro Finocchio Italian Air Force August In my work as a designer of electronic defense equipment, I have often realized that there is no book, readily available to the designer, that explains the principal functions of the different electronic warfare systems, what the vulnerable parts of radars are, what the limitations of weapon systems are, and what makes an electronic defense system effective.

Taking advantage of my experience as a designer of radar and weapon systems, I thought that a single volume describing the operating principles of both weapon systems and electronic defense systems might be useful to those wishing or needing to enter the field.

The book is addressed to those who are about to start working as designers of these systems, to those who are or will become their users, and to those who administer their procurement. The formulas and the mathematical theory have been reduced to a minimum, and readers are frequently invited to consult the appropriate references for in-depth analyses.

The book can therefore be read and understood by anyone with a secondary education and interest in the systems used by the armed forces. The book is divided into eight chapters. Chapter 1 explains briefly the usefulness of electronic defense, how it is organized, and what systems it includes. In addition, it describes the operational objectives of electronic defense.

Chapter 2 analyzes the sensors of weapon systems in order to highlight their merits and, above all, their limits. The objective is to help the designer exploit their weaknesses.

Both those using radio-frequency emissions and those using infrared are described. Chapter 5 is devoted to the more striking part of electronic defense: electronic countermeasures ECM ; that is, the generation of signals that, by interfering with the receivers of "victim" systems, cause a degradation in the performance of the associated weapon systems. Since weapon systems can undergo intentional jamming aimed at reducing their capabilities, they have been equipped with countercountermeasures ECCM systems.

These systems and their applications are described in Chapter 6, which gives an account of their effectiveness. The thrust and parry of countermeasures and counter-countermeasures seem to have no end,-and new technologies ensure that it is now possible to attack the very operating principles ofweapon systems, which makes the development of effective counter-countermeasures very difficult.

Chapter 7 describes this technological advance. Finally, to assist designers in achieving the optimum solution of the design problems described in Chapters 4 and 5, Chapter 8 lists the criteria that should be followed during the design stage of electronic defense systems. Chapter 8 also discusses the methods of evaluation and simulation that can determine whether a system is really effective.

This should be particularly helpful to those who have to decide on the choice of an electronic defense system. I hope that this book will be found useful. It is best seen as a simple reference book for the rapid evaluation and organization of material.

In the end, the quality of a system and the achievement of its operational objectives will depend, as always, on the ability, the preparation, and the dedication of those who have to perform the work. A special thank you to my first teacher on Radar Systems, Piero Guarguaglini President of Finmeccanica for the many discussions and suggestions on Radar and EW techniques.

I also thank my colleagues at Elettronica SpA and at other firms and organizations who have collaborated in the writing: Andrea De Martino and V. Rossi for their help and for material on radar systems; M. Grazzini for SAR technique; S.

Scarfb and A. Zaccaron for contributions to and revision of the material on digital receiver, DRFM, and location techniques; S. Spillo for ESM receivers; F. Conte for ECM material revision; A. Bacchelli for advanced identification techniques; G. Pinto for microwave technology; A. Zammit for electro-optics technology revision; G. Broli and M. Marks for chaff revision; D. Autiero for shared apertures; Michele Russo for contributions on telecommunications systems; L.

Girardi, G. Carlini, E. Nitoglia, and L. Caprioli for the artwork. Electronic Defense 1. Sensors 2. Weapon Systems 3. Electronic Intercept Systems 4. Electronic Countermeasures Systems 5. Electronic Counter-Countermeasures Systems 6. New Electronic Defense Techniques and Technologies 7. Design and Evaluation Criteria 8.

Electronic 1. The electronic era, and with it the first steps in the introduction of electronics. The second step was the introduction of radar for the detection, and location in angle and in range, of hostile platforms, and its subsequent use to increase the accuracy of artillery. The last step, and probably the most lethal one, has been the use of electronic devices for precision guidance of missiles Figure 1. The effectiveness of electronically guided weapon systems, expressed in terms of kill probability, has risen to values very close to unity, thus leaving undefended targets little hope of escape.

Consequently, almost all effective weapons now employ electronic guidance devices. As a result, it has become essential to develop counter electronic systems capable of reducing the effectiveness of weapon guidance devices. The fruitfulness of these countermeasure techniques has quickly become ,apparent. They have been developed to the point that they can seriously degrade the performance of nearly all weapon systems Figure 1.

Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems Figure 1. Figure 1. Electronic Defense The inevitable next step has been the development of countercountermeasures to try to restore the original effectiveness of the weapon sensors. The techniques and technologies that lead to the construction of devices capable of electronically countering a weapon system, and to the development of counter-countermeasures, go under the name "electronic warfare.

The following brief survey of the missions of the navy, army, and air force will help to identify the main weapon systems against which electronic defense must operate. It should be emphasized that the aim of this survey is the identification of electronically guided weapon systems, without reference to any specific military organization. Moreover, systems pertaining specifically to nuclear warfare are outside the scope of this book; only systems used with conventional armaments will be discussed.

Generally speaking, the mission of an air force is the surveillance and defense of the sky above national territory; the mission of a navy is the surveillance of the seas surrounding national territory and protection of important sea routes; and the mission of an army is the protection of the national territory itself. That is, the air force must: Contribute to the survival of important centers; Inflict losses and give attrition when attacked by an enemy; Ensure the neutralization of important military objectives in enemy territory; Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems Give air support to land and sea action; Ensure air transport; Execute reconnaissance as necessary.

Under hostile air attack, survival of important centers and attrition of the enemy are achieved by combining the use of a surveillance or search radar network with the deployment of air forces in the area where an incursion has been detected.

Such a combination is called an air defense network. Air defense search radars are characterized by high sensitivity, and can detect and give early warning of, the approach of targets at long ranges.

They are sometimes called early warning radars EWR and are characterized by high sophistication and reliability, as they must operate continuously in the complete range of environments. Because of their sensitivity, they can give broad cover to the national air space.

The coordination of the data they provide and the correlation with other information data fusion take place in special command and control centers, where operational decisions are taken. In time of peace, upon the detection of a suspect aircraft i.

The interceptor fighters approach the target, identify it, and either let it pass or force it to retrace its steps or to land Figure 1.

In time of war, the procedure is different. As soon as the presence of an alien aircraft has been discovered, the fighters Figure 1. They are still guided from the coordination center and try to locate the target as soon as possible with their own onboard radar. Identification is made with the help of identification of friend or foe IFF equipment, devices for automatic recognition of friendly and hostile platforms.

If the result warrants it, they lock onto the target and fire at it with their onboard weapons usually air-to-air missiles. They then try to make a "kill assessment" to determine the amount of damage suffered by the target and finally make their way back to base.

If the target is not immediately hit by a long- or medium-range missile, the fighters will have to approach closer to the intruding aircraft, starting a series of dogfights either by launching short-range missiles, usually infrared-guided, or by firing their onboard cannon. Figun 1. The photograph showsthe European fighter aircraft EFA. Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems Surveillanceof air space can be conducted directly by air patrols or by a nerwork of air defense radars.

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